Configure different types of routing protocols and understand their functionalities.

Routing protocols are essential components in computer networking that determine how data packets should be forwarded across a network. They help routers build and maintain routing tables, enabling efficient communication between devices. There are various routing protocols, each designed for specific network types and requirements.

  1. RIP (Routing Information Protocol):
    • Algorithm: RIP uses a distance-vector algorithm. Each router advertises its routing table to its neighbors periodically.
    • Metric: RIP uses hop count as its metric, where the number of routers a packet must traverse determines the best route.
    • Convergence: RIP has slower convergence compared to other protocols due to its periodic updates and slow convergence algorithms.
    • Use Case: Suitable for small to medium-sized networks with relatively simple topologies.
  2. OSPF (Open Shortest Path First):
    • Algorithm: OSPF uses a link-state algorithm, where routers exchange information about the state of their links.
    • Metric: OSPF uses a cost-based metric, considering factors like bandwidth, delay, reliability, and cost for determining the best path.
    • Convergence: OSPF provides faster convergence than RIP due to its ability to quickly adapt to changes in the network.
    • Use Case: Ideal for larger networks with complex topologies, as it scales well and supports variable-length subnet masking.
  3. BGP (Border Gateway Protocol):
    • Algorithm: BGP is a path vector protocol that makes decisions based on the path and policies rather than metrics like distance or cost.
    • Metric: BGP does not rely on a specific metric. Instead, it considers attributes like AS path, origin, and various policies for making routing decisions.
    • Convergence: BGP convergence is typically slower than interior gateway protocols due to the emphasis on policy-based decision-making.
    • Use Case: Primarily used for routing between autonomous systems (AS) on the Internet. BGP is designed to handle large-scale, hierarchical, and policy-driven routing.

Configuration Steps:

  1. RIP Configuration:
    • Enable RIP on the router.
    • Specify RIP version (RIPv1 or RIPv2).
    • Configure RIP on interfaces.
    • Set network addresses to participate in RIP.
    • Adjust timers for update intervals and route expiration.
  2. OSPF Configuration:
    • Enable OSPF on the router.
    • Define OSPF areas and assign interfaces to them.
    • Configure OSPF routing on interfaces.
    • Set OSPF router ID and other parameters.
    • Adjust OSPF timers for hello intervals and dead intervals.
  3. BGP Configuration:
    • Enable BGP on the router.
    • Define BGP neighbors and peer groups.
    • Specify BGP routing policies and attributes.
    • Advertise network prefixes to BGP neighbors.
    • Tune BGP timers for keepalives and hold times.