Differentiate between static and dynamic routing.

Static and dynamic routing are two approaches used in computer networking to determine the paths that data packets take as they travel through a network. These methods play a crucial role in routing tables, which are used by routers to make decisions about how to forward packets to their destination.

  1. Static Routing:
    • Definition: Static routing involves manually configuring the routing table on each router in a network. The network administrator specifies the routes that the packets should take based on the network topology.
    • Configuration: Routing tables are manually configured and do not change unless the administrator modifies them. Entries include information such as destination network addresses and the corresponding next-hop routers.
    • Advantages:
      • Simple and easy to configure.
      • No overhead on routers to dynamically update routing tables.
    • Disadvantages:
      • Maintenance can be cumbersome, especially in large and dynamic networks.
      • Not adaptable to changes in network topology.
  2. Dynamic Routing:
    • Definition: Dynamic routing protocols allow routers to automatically exchange information about the network with each other. Routers use this information to dynamically update their routing tables, adapting to changes in the network topology.
    • Configuration: Routers are configured to run a dynamic routing protocol, and they communicate with neighboring routers to share routing information.
    • Advantages:
      • Adaptable to changes in the network, making it suitable for dynamic environments.
      • Reduced administrative overhead as routers automatically learn and update routes.
    • Disadvantages:
      • More complex to configure and manage compared to static routing.
      • Increased processing overhead on routers due to the continuous exchange of routing information.
  3. Comparison:
    • Scalability:
      • Static routing is suitable for small networks with a stable topology.
      • Dynamic routing is more scalable and adaptable to larger and changing networks.
    • Configuration:
      • Static routing requires manual configuration of each router.
      • Dynamic routing automatically adapts to changes in the network, reducing the need for manual configuration.
    • Performance:
      • Static routing may have lower overhead on routers as there is no continuous exchange of routing information.
      • Dynamic routing involves periodic updates, which may introduce some overhead on routers.
  4. Examples:
    • Static Routing Examples: Cisco's "ip route" command or adding routes in a routing table manually.
    • Dynamic Routing Examples: Routing Information Protocol (RIP), Open Shortest Path First (OSPF), or Border Gateway Protocol (BGP).