Differentiate between static and dynamic routing.

Static routing and dynamic routing are two approaches used in computer networking to determine the paths that data packets take from source to destination. Here's a detailed technical explanation of the differences between static and dynamic routing:

Static Routing:

  1. Manual Configuration:
    • Static routing relies on manually configuring the routing table on each router within a network.
    • Network administrators need to specify the routes and destination addresses manually.
    • These static routes remain unchanged until an administrator modifies them.
  2. Predictability:
    • Static routing provides predictability as the routing paths are explicitly defined by the network administrator.
    • It's suitable for small and stable networks where the topology doesn't change frequently.
  3. Less Overhead:
    • There is less overhead on the routers as they do not need to exchange routing information with other routers.
    • No dynamic routing protocols are running, reducing the use of network resources.
  4. Security:
    • Since static routes are manually configured, they can enhance security by reducing the risk of unauthorized changes to the routing table.
  5. Scalability:
    • Not scalable for large, dynamic networks or networks with frequent changes in topology.
    • Adding or removing devices or changing network topology requires manual updates on all routers.

Dynamic Routing:

  1. Automatic Updates:
    • Dynamic routing protocols enable routers to automatically exchange routing information with neighboring routers.
    • The routers dynamically learn about network changes and update their routing tables accordingly.
  2. Adaptability:
    • Dynamic routing adapts to changes in network topology, such as link failures or the addition of new devices.
    • Protocols like OSPF, RIP, and EIGRP dynamically adjust routing paths based on real-time network conditions.
  3. Complexity:
    • Dynamic routing introduces complexity as routers need to run routing protocols to share and receive information about the network.
    • Routers use algorithms and metrics to determine the best paths dynamically.
  4. Scalability:
    • Better suited for large networks where manual configuration of routes becomes impractical.
    • The dynamic nature allows for easier scalability and management in environments with frequent changes.
  5. Convergence:
    • Dynamic routing protocols facilitate faster network convergence in response to changes as routers can quickly adapt to new routes.
  6. Resource Utilization:
    • More network bandwidth is used for routing information exchange, and routers may require additional processing power to handle dynamic routing protocols.