# ml algorithms

Machine Learning (ML) algorithms are computational models that enable computers to learn patterns and make decisions without being explicitly programmed. These algorithms form the backbone of various applications, ranging from image recognition and natural language processing to recommendation systems and autonomous vehicles. ML algorithms can be broadly categorized into three main types: supervised learning, unsupervised learning, and reinforcement learning.

**Supervised Learning:****Linear Regression:**Used for predicting a continuous outcome based on one or more input features.**Logistic Regression:**Applied for binary classification problems, predicting whether an instance belongs to one of two classes.**Decision Trees:**Tree-like models that make decisions based on features at each node, commonly used for classification and regression.**Random Forest:**An ensemble method that builds multiple decision trees and combines their predictions to improve accuracy and robustness.**Support Vector Machines (SVM):**Useful for both classification and regression tasks, SVM tries to find a hyperplane that best separates different classes in feature space.

**Unsupervised Learning:****K-Means Clustering:**Groups similar data points into clusters based on their features.**Hierarchical Clustering:**Builds a tree of clusters by recursively merging or splitting existing clusters.**Principal Component Analysis (PCA):**Reduces the dimensionality of data while retaining important information.**Association Rule Learning (Apriori, Eclat):**Identifies interesting relationships or associations among variables in large datasets.

**Reinforcement Learning:****Q-Learning:**Used for making decisions in a dynamic environment where an agent learns to take actions to maximize a reward signal.**Deep Q Networks (DQN):**Combines Q-learning with deep neural networks to handle complex and high-dimensional state spaces.**Policy Gradient Methods:**Directly optimize the policy of an agent to maximize expected rewards.**Actor-Critic:**Combines aspects of both value-based and policy-based methods, with separate networks for policy and value function.

**Neural Networks and Deep Learning:****Feedforward Neural Networks:**Basic neural network architecture where information flows in one direction.**Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN):**Designed for image processing, featuring convolutional layers to automatically learn spatial hierarchies of features.**Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN):**Suitable for sequential data, such as time series or natural language, with the ability to retain memory of past inputs.**Transformer Models:**Attention-based architectures, widely used in natural language processing tasks.