What are the common regulatory frameworks relevant to information security?

Several regulatory frameworks exist globally to address information security concerns and ensure the protection of sensitive data. These frameworks vary depending on the region and industry, but some common ones include:

  1. ISO/IEC 27001:
    • Description: An international standard for information security management systems (ISMS).
    • Focus: It provides a systematic approach to managing sensitive company information, ensuring its confidentiality, integrity, and availability.
    • Key Components: Risk assessment, security policy, asset management, access control, cryptography, physical security, etc.
  2. GDPR (General Data Protection Regulation):
    • Description: Applicable in the European Union, it focuses on the protection of personal data and the rights of individuals.
    • Focus: GDPR emphasizes transparency, consent, and the right to erasure (the right to be forgotten).
    • Key Components: Data protection officer (DPO), data subject rights, lawful processing of data, data breach notification, etc.
  3. HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act):
    • Description: Applies to the healthcare industry in the United States, protecting the privacy and security of patient information.
    • Focus: Safeguarding health information, ensuring its confidentiality and integrity.
    • Key Components: Protected Health Information (PHI), security risk assessment, access controls, encryption, etc.
  4. PCI DSS (Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard):
    • Description: Applies to organizations that handle credit card transactions.
    • Focus: Ensuring the secure processing, storage, and transmission of cardholder data.
    • Key Components: Network security, access controls, encryption, regular security assessments, etc.
  5. NIST Cybersecurity Framework:
    • Description: Developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in the U.S., it provides a voluntary framework for improving cybersecurity.
    • Focus: Identification, protection, detection, response, and recovery from cybersecurity events.
    • Key Components: Framework Core (functions, categories, and subcategories), implementation tiers, and profiles.
  6. CIS Controls (Center for Internet Security Controls):
    • Description: Developed by the Center for Internet Security, these are a set of best practices for cybersecurity.
    • Focus: Providing guidelines for securing an organization's IT systems and data.
    • Key Components: Basic and foundational security controls, organized into three categories: basic, foundational, and organizational.
  7. FISMA (Federal Information Security Management Act):
    • Description: Applies to U.S. federal agencies, providing a framework for securing federal information and systems.
    • Focus: Risk management and ensuring the effectiveness of information security programs.
    • Key Components: Security categorization, security controls, continuous monitoring, incident response, etc.
  8. Cyber Essentials (UK):
    • Description: Developed by the UK government, it's a cybersecurity certification program.
    • Focus: Helping organizations implement basic cybersecurity measures.
    • Key Components: Boundary firewalls, secure configuration, access control, malware protection, patch management.